Knitting gauge is the measurement of your knitted stitches and how many are in one inch. It's all about the size of your stitches.
You figure that out by measuring how wide your stitches are and how long they are. So you'll measure both across your knitted fabric and down.
You need to know the width and length. Or as they say, stitch and row gauge.
The gauge for knitting is usually measured over a 4 X 4 inch square of knitting called a swatch.
And you'll want to make your swatch big enough to be able to measure your stitches properly. Oh and no measuring the edge stitches.
They're usually a little funky.
You could even knit your gauge swatch a little bigger if you want. What it'll do is make your measurement more accurate.
Pretty boring right?
But ..by knitting this little gauge swatch it will help you match the knitting gauge you have with the gauge in your knitting pattern.
Note: Depending where you live, knitting gauge is also known as knitting tension and a gauge swatch is known as a tension square.
When you start knitting patterns you'll notice that each pattern will have a gauge listed.
This is what it will look like in a knitting pattern:
Gauge 18 sts and 24 rows = 4 ins (10cm) with size 8 (5 mm) knitting needles in stockinette st.
What that means is when they designed the pattern they used that particular yarn and that size knitting needles.
And when they created the sizing (maybe you're looking at a sweater pattern) it was in that yarn and that needle size.
So if you want that size sweater you will need to use the yarn and needle size they used in order to get the size you need.
But and there is a but...
You can switch out the yarn and even the needle size but you still must come to the same gauge in knitting if you want to get the proper size.
The knitting gauge is also listed to give you the freedom to choose another yarn if you don't like the one in the pattern or you just want to try something else.
If you want to substitute a yarn in your knitting pattern check the yarn label to make sure that it matches the knitting gauge in your pattern.
It doesn't have to be exact but should be fairly close. For instance, if the pattern used a worsted weight yarn, you would still need to use a worsted weight yarn.
Then simply knit a gauge swatch with your new yarn instead.
When I'm switching out yarns in a pattern I like to check out YarnSub. I've mentioned this wonderful website before.
It can help you choose another yarn with very similar qualities that your pattern is calling for.
Remember too that just because the knitting pattern suggests certain knitting yarns and needles it doesn't mean you have to use them.
What is important is matching your knitting gauge to the pattern and if that means using a different size needle then go for it.
Because the size of the stitches matters a lot.
When you knit anything with shape like sweaters for instance, you want to knit the right size so it will fit.
If your knitting is even off by half a stitch it could mean a sweater ends up being way too big or way too small.
Here's an example: You want to knit a sweater that is 40 inches around. The knitting gauge says you need 5 stitches per inch. With the correct gauge you can cast on 200 stitches and make your sweater.
40 inches multiplied by 5 stitches per inch equals 200 stitches to cast on. So inches X stitches per inch is the formula for knowing how many stitches you need to cast on.
You don't bother checking your knitting gauge and end up knitting with 4.5 stitches per inch instead.
But you still cast on 200 stitches and knit your sweater. When you finish you will actually have a sweater that is 44.45 inches not 40 inches.
200 stitches divided by 4.5 stitches per inch equals 44.45 inches
So the total amount of stitches divided by stitches per inch is the formula for knowing how many inches are in a specific area of knitting.
And you're only able to figure it out if you know your knitting gauge.
Okay you may not mind a nice loose fitting sweater but what if it was 4 inches too small - hmm I wonder if it would stretch.
You see I've been there more times than I'd like to admit. I know what it's like.
Checking the knitting gauge beforehand and switching to a smaller knitting needle could have saved the disappointment.
Why take the chance when it is so easy to quickly knit a swatch and measure it out. Save yourself that frustration.
Many things, you see a lot of things affect gauge like:
By knitting a swatch you can find out a great deal about the yarn itself and also about how you knit, things like:
Yes. You can find lots of things: wash cloths, blankets, some knitted bags, afghans and scarves don't necessarily need a gauge.
I know how you feel because I thought that way too but then knitting a sweater that doesn't fit is a waste of time too. And disappointing.
There are some things you can do with that swatch (or swatches).
You can frog (unravel) it and use the yarn in your knitting project or save it and use it with something else.
Or, you can save a bunch of swatches and when you have enough you can sew them up into a small blanket or throw, even a scarf.
Gauge swatches actually are a nice pocket size so if you're knitting a sweater you could use your swatch for a pocket.
Create some swatch cards. Pick up some recipe cards or something like it and write down all the knitting information you learned from that yarn.
Then mark down any notes you have or things you made with it. Punch a hole in the card and attach it to your swatch and store it. Have a file for all your knitting projects.
There are probably more things you can do too. Have any ideas?
Here's something I did with one of my swatches...
May seem a little silly but....I had a small plastic ice cream container and I was using it for my small knitting tools.
So I wrapped my swatch around it and made a little container cozy...haha.
At least it looks prettier than the plastic container right?
First, check to see what the knitting gauge is in your pattern. So let's say it says:
18 sts and 24 rows = 4 inc (10 cm) with size 8 (5mm) needles in Stockinette st.
What this means is there should be 18 stitches and 24 rows in those 4 inches.
To start, use the same yarn and needles the pattern calls for and cast on about 20 stitches and knit Stockinette stitch for about 5 inches. Make sure to bind off your stitches too.
If you want to add a garter stitch border you can but it's not necessary.
There is some controversy over blocking your swatch. Here's my thought about it. I will block my swatch when the fit is crucial like sweaters.
However for things like mittens, hats, scarves and shawls, if I'm using acrylic yarn I won't bother.
All you need is a stitch gauge or a plain ruler. I also use a calculator because I am terrible with fractions so I keep a little one in my knitting bag.
What is a stitch gauge? It's that metal knitting tool in the picture above. See the slots on the sides? That's how you'll measure your stitches per inch and also your rows per inch.
Lay your swatch out on a flat hard surface (not on your lap) and put your stitch gauge over your swatch without stretching the stitches in any way.
Then you just count those little V's. Each 'V' is one stitch.
Count the stitches across and then count how many stitches are in the rows as well.
Here's a closer look at how to measure knitting gauge.
Before I take the stitch gauge off (and this isn't shown), as an extra security, I measure 4 inches along the top of the stitch gauge (outside the little slot ).
You see the slot is only 2 inches and if I want a more accurate measure I'll do the 4 inches across the top.
And that's it. Now you know how many stitches per inch you have and can check it with the knitting gauge in your pattern.
Marly Bird has a great video on knitting gauge and I thought you'd enjoy it. She explains everything perfectly. And you may even enjoy knitting the shawl she describes in her video too.
Hope this helps. Happy Knitting!